My DLL Journey

The past 18 months provided excitement, inspiration, anxiety, stress, jubilation, and determination. The comic below displays my journey through each course experience in the program. The program demanded an adjustment and development of what would eventually become my innovation plan for my organization. I researched, I planned, and I developed a model. Every plan needs an outline, and every plan must have a backbone. Now that I have completed this stage in my growth as an educator, I must take what I have learned and promote it effectively throughout my organization using a new model of professional learning. My time in the Digital Learning and Leading program at Lamar University may be over as a student; however, my journey will continue with my colleagues and professors by my side. Using the COVA approach to CSLE could not have resonated more with my personal philosophy and for more information please check out my reading list. A HUGE shout out to all my peers that helped me along my journey and all my professors that facilitated my learning experience while allowing me to personalize my assignments that formed my innovation plan. Stay tuned for updates on the implementation of my innovation plan and new digital tools that can be fused into a blended learning model for your classroom.

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A Bridge between Hockey and Education

I was born into the Mario Lemieux generation of Yinzers (those that hail from Pittsburgh). When I wasn’t on the ice, I was watching his highlights and reading his biographies. The man could do no wrong. He transformed himself into the best professional hockey player in the world and was rewarded by being diagnosed with Hodgkin’s Lymphoma disease. Mario fought the cancer, came back to the team, and retired with the team that drafted him. Then, when the Penguins organization spiraled downward in the early 2000’s, Mario agreed to turn the millions of dollars owed to him by the Pens into the majority of shares in the company. He continues to hold the majority of the shares and has led the team to five Stanley Cup Championships as a player and owner. Craving the success that Mario had achieved for himself, I practiced those traits of dedication and loyalty. I decided that the Heritage Panthers were going to be my Pittsburgh Penguins. In my first year of teaching, I took on the freshman class sponsorship and a baseball coaching position. By the end of my second year, I was one semester into earning my master’s degree at the school my Heritage colleague recommended. Starting my fourth year at Heritage, I will be trading coaching for collaborating at the district level and looking to start the implementation of my innovation plan within the district. New anticipation comes with the new changes each year. For now, I will continue to work on changing myself first. Piloting the station rotation model in my classroom consistently will be the key to making any kind of large scale change. I will continue my transformation into the best educator I can be with the hope that my decisions lead me from a player to an owner.

 

You Don’t Know COVA, Until You Live COVA

I have viewed and shared the video RSA Animate Changing Education Paradigms so many times I can probably recite Sir Ken Robinson’s speech from memory. This video became my battle cry for my personal “why” of teaching. My problem was that I did not know how I was going to assist in changing the paradigms. COVA (Choice, Ownership, Voice, and Authentic Learning Experiences) and CSLE (Creating a Significant Learning Environment) were the concepts I needed to move my American public education system in the direction I wanted it to go. Implementing COVA and CSLE will ensure the culture needed to shake the current education trends from further use and the beginning of the education revolution in our public school system. For more on the COVA approach and CSLE please visit the Professional Learning for the Digital Age page of my site.

As I begin to reflect on the process, my first thoughts go back to the missteps I took. Classes I saw as strewn individual puzzle pieces were completed sufficiently, and classes that I placed connections between earned a deeper engagement. Being focused primarily on the happenings of daily life as a classroom teacher, I compartmentalized my graduate work as separate from practices within school. However, it was not until last week that my eyes finally adjusted and saw the complete puzzle together. This happened when I was building a set of Google classrooms to be used for a “New Teacher Orientation” professional learning day. While beginning to start my last classroom, I realized that I had found a way to bring my innovation plan to my school. In the whirlwind, I could only focus on what was directly impacting my life: the resistance directly coming from within my organization. Without even knowing it, this program provided me the time and resources to build my innovation plan outside of the whirlwind. As I moved through the beginning stages of the process I took a mindset that I was accomplishing practice for later, now I realize the design ensures that my “practice” is directly influencing the work I am doing within my organization. The weekly artifacts completed within the courses provided me the stepping stones to the knowledge and the leadership skills I would need to influence my colleagues into giving my innovation plan a thought.

The COVA approach was a great fit for me and allowed me the freedom and opportunity to advance myself as an educator. The significant learning environment created through the LMS Blackboard structured my growth and ensured direction. There were times when I felt like my innovation plan was becoming spread too thin and was heading in differing directions. Without the structure of the program, my ambition would have pressed me to try and accomplish too broad a spectrum of goals within my innovation plan. The combination of the significant learning environment and the COVA approach fit perfectly into my philosophy of teaching. This gave the program credibility in my eyes and motivated me to continue my work. This also built support that my graduate work was my career work. Alas, I continued the separation of graduate and career work under the preconception that school and work were separate entities. Once I realized that this was not the case and that the two were indefinitely intertwined, I acknowledged my project I was building “for my university” was also the project I was building “for my organization.”

The COVA approach provides a label for my teaching philosophy I have been honing since my undergraduate work. Learning how to create significant learning environments was the skill I needed to bring COVA to my organization. I will be implementing the station rotation model in my classroom using Google classrooms paired with my online textbook. I must maintain my practices involving teaching the state standards through the district mandated curriculum. However, novel-studies and research projects will find life in Google classrooms that students participate in using the station rotation model. Students will choose which novel they will be studying and what topic they will be researching from a curated list. They will engage in discussion boards and reflect on assignments by blogging alongside daily grammar, vocabulary, and writing lessons. Students will be provided a pacing guideline, but will need to take ownership of their time management because the deadline for work to be completed will be the at the conclusion of the unit. As students create their own voice through the authentic learning opportunities within the blended unit, discussion boards, blog posts, Socratic seminars, in-class debates, and a concluding performance task, they will rise to the challenge of becoming self-directed learners.

My students will live the COVA approach throughout the year in my classroom. Being that self-discovery is so key when instilling life-long skills and mental approachs, I will not introduce the COVA model to my students until the conclusion of the year when they can reflect on whether they actively chose to be a part of the model or not. This method will allow for more genuine practice during the year from my students and myself. I believe piloting this model of blended learning will hone my facilitating skills, collect the data necessary to spread the model through my school and write a 1:1 grant for my school. My learners will face the challenge of seeing this model solely in my classroom. It will be my responsibility as a coach to inspire them to make the choice to take ownership of their education, find their unique voice, and engage in authentic learning experiences.

 

The Where and the What of Getting Published

Publication in the online journal Educational Leadership provides an excellent stepping stone to implementing the blended learning practices I have researched throughout my graduate program. The conversational tone requested in the guidelines for publication allows me creative freedom to discuss my research and my plans for creating digital citizens. The theme of “Citizens in the Making” inspired me to put together a submission that demonstrates the value of teaching digital citizenship through the use of blended learning. The intention of my submission will be to combine ideas regarding the use of digital resources and tools to research and create with ideas regarding digital citizenship. This will provide students the opportunity to explore content meaningful to their pursuit of positive citizenship as well as their pursuit to develop and hone their skills in navigating through a digital world that they aim to participate in. While the theme description advocates the description of how schools will assist students in becoming stronger citizens in the traditional sense of the word citizenship, research in the field of digital learning demands that students comprehend and practice positive digital citizenship. The concepts and practices surrounding digital citizenship parallel those of traditional citizenship; therefore, students would benefit from exposure to content  involving traditional citizenship in the form of digital texts. Once students read through these digital texts, they can display their learning through a variety of digital mediums. Students that engage in this learning process will achieve the learning objective of “acquire the knowledge, dispositions, and skills that are essential for responsible citizenship in areas such as history and government, scientific literacy, and communication” and use digital tools and resources to create meaningful content that promotes positive digital citizenship.  The following sources will provide support for my case to use digital citizenship to reinforce lessons aimed at transforming our students into engaged and informed citizens of the United States of America.

Learning and design with online real-time collaboration

This paper put together by Michael Stevenson and John G. Hedburg discusses how online communication can assist students in developing artifacts that display learning. The paper explains the necessity of understanding how students can collaborate within digital learning environments to effectively design curriculum to be used in an online learning platform.

Collaborative cloud: a new model for e-learning

This paper put together by Jian Liao, Minhong Wang, Weijia Ran, and Stephen J.H. Yang provides educators an option to use cloud computing for online collaboration and creation. This prototype system has the ability to provide students a more efficient method of writing, revising, and editing as well as a more efficient method of collaboration with their teachers and peers.

Closing the Communication Gap

This article put together by Kelly J. Charles and Virginia Dickens describes how Web 2.0 tools can enhance the planning and implementation of lessons. The article provides an introduction to Web 2.0 and how it can be used to co-teach and enhance collaboration between educators and students.

Building 21st Century Writers

This article put together by Jennifer Demski addresses the need for students to write using digital platforms. The article uses results from the Student Writing Achievement Through Technology Enhanced Collaboration (SWATTEC) grant to demonstrate how using digital tools to collaborate and write improves student achievement on writing test scores.

Teaching in a Digital Age

This book written by Tony Bates informs its readers on how the digital landscape has transformed how educators must teach. Chapters include how the digital world has reconstructed the classroom, how the digital world has effected pedagogy, and how the various mediums within the digital world can be used to effectively educate.

Students as Creators: How To Drive Your Students To Become More Than Just Consumers

This online article by Saga Briggs emphasizes the need for students to create within the digital world. Briggs stresses that students must use digital tools to synthesize the vast amount of information they encounter to develop their skills in analyzing and evaluating sources as well as their skills in creating content and using their sources for support.

In Spring City, PA., Hybrid Learning Sends Test Scores Soaring

This article by Kathy Boccella describes how an elementary school in Pennsylvania used hybrid learning to boost their math, reading, and science scores. Hybrid learning is defined as using digital learning alongside individualized learning and small group instruction.

Digital Citizenship Means Character Education for the Digital Age

This article written by Jason Ohler provides a case for providing students with information on how to practice positive digital citizenship. Ohler argues students in the digital age require the information on what digital citizenship means and the opportunity to practice positive digital citizenship.

When the news intrudes: Helping kids make sense of the media

This article written by Devorah Heitner provides reasons as to why students must understand how to analyze and evaluate source material. Heitner also provides a list of practices that ensure students are provided the proper opportunities to learn and practice positive digital citizenship.

Digital Citizenship in Schools

This book authored by Mike Ribble explains what digital citizenship is and what it means to all digital citizens. Ribble then discusses how the nine elements of digital citizenship affect learning in schools as a whole and in classrooms as individual places of learning.

How Learners Become Leaders

The Greek philosopher Heraclitus stated, “The only constant is change.” The evolution of the digital universe demanded that I allow change. With a release of an updated version of your device each year, new software must be learned with each update. This constant updating demands a growth mindset. Once the growth mindset takes effect, learning digital tools joins the list of never-ending things to do. As a new homeowner, I can say I never thought mowing the lawn and learning how to use my computer would fall under the same list. As an educator, the impending change due to technology finds realization in each year’s lesson plans. I observe veteran teachers roll out the same lesson plans year-after-year, and I cannot help but wonder how they are not bored to the point of insanity. My lessons, while only three years old, have taken on new characteristics and supplemental activities each year. Some of those supplemental activities will be described and linked to further on.
First, I must acknowledge where I believe I fall short within my digital learning network. I have accumulated numerous resources and uncountable texts, pictures, and videos to be used within my arsenal of educating tools. I have used formal education, social media, and the much discussed “sit and get,” as well as a myriad of other platforms, to put together the lessons I use day in and out as a high school teacher. However, I have not contributed the artifacts that I have created using all of these inspirations. With the culmination of my first graduate program in sight, I look past the stage and view myself working on insuring my work can be used by the masses that I so graciously borrowed from. The digital world provides me with unlimited opportunities to publish my material, so the responsibility falls on me to put in the ground work to accomplish my goals.
One of my major takeaways from this program is that you must model the behavior you wish to see. Whether you are teaching teachers how to effectively implement digital tools within the classroom or teaching students how to use digital tools to display their evidence of learning, those receiving instruction must view the skills being used before using those skills themselves. My weakness lies in my inexperience with a variety of digital tools. I am still learning what digital tools are out there and how to use them within instruction. I have ensured that my students are being provided the opportunity to develop digital content and practice positive digital citizenship skills by lining my curriculum with supplemental digital activities. After taking my students through a grammar lesson, they complete an assignment using NoRedInk. After copying a unit of vocabulary words, they complete a set of exercises posted on their class’ webpage. I use videos provided through my online textbook to supplement content; however, a reflection piece that can be typed or hand-written will be paired with the video to guarantee engagement. I have experimented with the The Gutenberg Project to provide my students with digital copies of text that we read inside the classroom. Most of the ways I use technology to support teaching in my classroom are channels for students to complete assignments from outside of the classroom. This safeguard method came out of my need to accommodate a number of students that miss large amounts of class time. My current experiment provides my students reading Romeo and Juliet the opportunity to create their own comic of the play using Storyboard Creator. My challenge with using all of these digital tools is keeping up with how content is created and submitted. I hope that my students view my eagerness to allow them creative freedom through digital outlets as motivation to begin developing their digital footprint.

 

For a digital tool to earn value and create educational impact, that digital tool must allow the user/s proper space and time to comprehend the tool, to practice using the tool, and to demonstrate the ability to synthesize understandings of the curriculum and personal connections via the tool. When users are rushed through a digital tool or are provided a digital tool with no instruction or practice, the quality of learning and the quality of the artifacts being created decreases. I am currently awaiting on approval of a mission to travel to Dominca and St. Thomas to assist in professional learning revolving around implementing iPads and interactive whiteboards within the classroom. My challenge will be to hone my skills in the use of these technologies to ensure that I am providing effective and meaningful instruction to those listening to my presentation. My plan is to take the Romeo and Juliet Unit Plan I have built to incorporate a number of digital tools and assemble it into a Blendspace Unit. I can then take those at the professional learning through the unit using an iPad and interactive whiteboard. While this may not be fully inclusive of what the capabilities of these tools can accomplish, I believe that a “stepping stones” approach must be taken when instructing and learning digital tools. Due to the vast amount of ways an iPad and interactive whiteboard can used, learners would find themselves experiencing cognitive overload by attempting to master those tools in a matter of days. As I continue to introduce myself to new tools and hone my skills within already known tools, I hope to model positive digital citizenship and to inspire those around me to develop their personal digital citizenship.

I first saw “Changing Education Paradigms” by RSA Animate in my undergraduate years, and I have shared it and viewed it more times than I can recall. This video provided me with a moment of clarity that has driven my desire to educate myself in the field of digital learning. When I combine the concepts brought to mind by Sir Kenneth Robinson and the concepts brought to mind by Steven Johnson in “Where Good Ideas Come From,” I find my inspiration that allows me to induce a state of flow when at work. Jago (2000) describes the state of flow as state of mind in which an individual loses sight of all distractions due to being entirely engaged within the current objective (p. 89). Understanding that the field of education will be transformed in such a way that the previous model will be unrecognizable to the present combined with the understanding that my personal ideas must be tended to and developed provides balance that fosters innovation and leadership. I have began my career in providing my country with a premium educational product; however, the goals I am achieving now are the beginning steps to what ideas will combine with others to assist the change in education paradigms.

References:

Jago, C. (2000). With Rigor for All. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann

The New Dual Citizenship

Before the digital age, dual citizenship connotated that you were a citizen of multiple countries in the global community. Dual citizenship has taken on new meaning for me and hopefully, for all digital citizens. I would be willing to bet cold, hard cash that the clear majority of schools mention educating and promoting positive citizenship in some amount of words within their mission statement. I am curious as to how many of those schools include digital citizenship within that mission statement. Throughout my education positive digital citizenship has been implied through the concepts brought on by traditional citizenship, so it seems somewhat backwards that my first formal “digital citizenship” course was not taken until the concluding moments of my graduate program after using digital tools and resources for more than a decade.  This class provided me the opportunity to hone my practices to ensure that I continue building a positive digital footprint that assists my life as a digital citizen and as a traditional citizen.

The amount of information that was necessary to cover, providing that this class was my first formal class in digital citizenship, handily became my greatest challenge. This challenge demanded that I adhere to a weekly schedule, a zero tolerance for procrastination, and a mind void of previously held views on the topics while analyzing text . Answering the challenge, I created a surplus of artifacts that can be recycled and revamped for future uses. The creation of these artifacts provided me the outlet necessary to mold preconceptions into new conceptions that emphasize digital leadership through practice. The presentation that I created as my culminating project will see more light than the other artifacts created because I intend on preparing similar presentations of the same content using different digital tools. I believe that these different presentations could then be brought together to form a singular, diversely created presentation that demonstrates the elements of digital citizenship while informing the audience of each element.

I have only the small beginnings of my digital footprint intact. This class placed a spotlight on the minuscule nature of my digital footprint through a variety of tests: unveiling the digital population’s size and diversity, performing a Google search on my name, and setting up the Google alert application for myself to name a few. This class also reminded me of the goals I had previously set for myself in the digital community: develop digital resources, organize digital resources into an online curriculum, and present at a TED conference. For the revival of my digital goals and for the push to create a number of digital artifacts, I recommend that digital natives of all ages take this course in a format proper to the maturity of the student. The sole activity that I had a problem with, the 2-5 minute video presentation within Week 2, was accepted in another medium. Therefore, I have no qualms with any of the assignments as they provided ample opportunity to practice the digital citizenship I will now promote throughout my organization.

While I created both aspects of my culminating project, On and Aware and A New Citizenship for a New World, specifically to be implemented within my school, I will patiently wait until I have completed my program and have an arsenal of artifacts at my disposal to bring it to my administration. It is my hope that this class has provided me the beginnings of what I will implement as effective professional learning within my innovation plan.

The Effect of Transparency

I couldn’t find the exact quote; however, in the HBO Series The Sopranos, James (Gandolfini) as Tony Soprano passes on the advice that eventually your persona in the professional world and your persona in your personal world will become inseparable. I believe this concept holds true when addressing behavior in the digital world and behavior in the real world. Due to inexperience, humans may have the preconception that how they carry themselves online can differ than how they carry themselves in the real world. We, humans, are learning that this is not the case at all. Whether we use the digital universe for positive or negative activities, those activities are stored and tracked regardless of our desires to store or track them. This creates total transparency and those that participate in the digital universe must be aware of this transparency and adjust their behavior to ensure the proper reflection of self.

Monica (Lewinsky) was, as she described it, “ground-zero” for this type of transparency. Before the digital age, even when scandal broke, the scandal could be localized and those involved could usually find a way to “escape” or “start-over” somewhere new. The advent of digital media ushered in a new era lacking the privacy to engage in activity “behind-closed-doors.” There are two major points to consider when developing a stance on whether this loss of privacy will benefit or harm society. On one side of the coin, we want to maintain our privacy from an overzealous government that can manipulate practice of law to entrap and prosecute citizens that would normally move through life as positive citizens. For example, an adult educator may use social media to post pictures of a family beach vacation on their private account. The school district said educator works for may find their way to these pictures and deem them unacceptable, because they would not be appropriate if students were to view them. The educator has not broken any laws nor has done anything inappropriate but may face consequences due to posts in the digital world. On the other side of the coin, we can use total transparency to adjust human culture in a way that people no longer participate in activities they know will be seen by society as negative. Will people refrain from questionable activity in the digital and real realms of their world to avoid scrutiny? Could this lead to a more harmonious and free society? At what point do we separate professional life from personal life? Has the advent of the digital world erased that line between the professional life and personal life? What about those that use digital tools under an anonymous username?

If I had unlimited resources, I would eliminate the availability of using an anonymous username in the digital world. I would create a system that would link all digital activity of a user to one username that could be tracked to identify any illegal activity. This would assist in identifying, educating, and curbing cyberbullying on top of promoting kind, acceptable digital citizenship. Shane Koyczan wrote and performed one of the most moving poems I have had the pleasure of watching. His display of the effects of bullying demonstrate the importance of educating our youth on the importance of empathy. Lack of empathy will always be the driving motivation behind any type of bullying; however, it is not impossible to educate citizens of all ages on the effects of their actions. This education paired with introducing coping skills and empowerment skills has a better chance of helping our youth develop into positive, life-long learning, citizens. Our students must understand that digital activity cannot be hidden. They must also understand that their digital activity will be a direct reflection on their persona in the real world. Once these two ideas take hold, our students will adjust their online practices to ensure they are viewed as positive digital citizens.

References:

Lewinsky, M. (2015, March). The Price of Shame. TED. Retrieved

from http://www.youtube.com/

Gandolfini, J. (n.d.). The Sopranos. HBO Broadcasting.

A Case for Independence

There is one idea that I have heard and read in most the information on this topic that sticks out and frustrates me: The law is having a hard time keeping up with the constant growth of the technology. The inability of the law to keep pace with the technology it governs poses a problem with instructing and abiding the law. How can we expect students to value and abide a law that they know will be reconsidered and revised within a year? If law is to effectively adapt to the technology it presides over, then a proper law-making body must be given the resources and autonomy to effectively create that law. The (Hudson Institute) White Paper makes the acceptable and fair case that the U.S. Copyright Office needs to be released from underneath the Library of Congress to ensure that intellectual property is managed properly and effectively. The success of the system’s past does not guarantee the system’s success in the future.

The Library of Congress may have spread its resources effectively to handle the U.S. Copyright Office in the past; however, the present and the future demand a change. I take one major idea away from this week: a large amount of assumptions are made concerning intellectual property and copyright law due to preconceptions of an outdated system. When addressing this issue from a growth mindset, it becomes difficult to side with staying in the same location. Adapting the U.S. Copyright Office practices within the constraints of the Library of Congress seems more like a sustaining innovation that is failing to effectively innovate. Allowing the U.S. Copyright Office to move out and begin practices with autonomy seems more like a disruptive innovation that holds immense potential to effectively create and implement law. Laws regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement along with the enforcement of said laws must be the sole purpose of the governing organization.

The U.S. Copyright Office must be able to provide the guidelines for understanding and enforcing copyright laws. Once those guidelines are in place, with a certain freedom to adapt, intellectual property can be created in an environment that values authorship which will result in increases in speed of information being transmitted and the validity of the information being transmitted. When the information being transmitted sees these increases, the development of societies with access to the Internet will exponentially rise creating a global community in which human rights can be acknowledged and granted to each of its citizens.

References:

The Hudson Institute. (2015). A 21st Century Copyright Office: The Conservative Case for

     Reform. Washington, D.C: Author.

The American right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of Internet access

Students and educators alike must adapt to the truth that our society demands Internet access. The potential for the gap between the impoverished and wealthy stands to grow out of an attitude that technology is not a human right and should be treated as any other business: pay to earn access. In the argument of healthcare versus access, (Fung) critiques those in favor of the idea that Smartphones are a privilege that should be addressed after achieving proper health care. Recent studies show that the low-income and impoverished population of American citizens depend on Smartphones for access to banking, job research, and personal medical research. (Fung) While healthcare may be at the bottom of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, access to the Internet is rapidly rolling down the side of the pyramid. This need for access reaches into the classroom in the demands for teachers to use digital tools. Teachers that assign their students digital work must ensure that each of their students have access to the digital tools and resources necessary for the task.

Beginning to instruct students how to use their access responsibly at an early age greatly increases the chances those students mature into responsible digital citizens. (Heitner) addresses the issue of training our students/kids to use digital sources correctly through proper analysis and evaluation in her article When the news intrudes, helping kids make sense of the media. Students not only have to understand how to properly and effectively filter information found on the Internet, they must understand the process of creating a digital tattoo. Students can be informed and guided on how to ensure they are building a positive digital tattoo as early as they are provided access. The consequences of intentional and unintentional digital tattooing are an essential part of the mandatory conversation over Internet access.

Two of my baseball players added to their unintentional digital tattoo this season by posting a picture of themselves with bottles of liquor to Snapchat. The picture got to me and the athletes’ consequence was suspension for one game. One of the things that digital natives seem to understand, yet lack regard for, is the digital tattoo. Students comprehend that what they put on the Internet can remain there forever; however, true to their teenage mentality, they do not comprehend the scope and magnitude of their digital tattoo. Students should be taught to create both a professional and public ePortfolio in an attempt to provide practice creation under both lights. Students that engage in activities revolving around positive digital citizenship will consistently “think before they post.”

In last week’s discussion the element of access was discussed as the most prominent of the elements of digital citizenship. Students must understand the ramifications of being a positive and negative digital citizen. For that reason, unavailability of an Internet connection and a misuse of an Internet connection are the two greatest threats to effective accessing and sharing of content on the Internet. If we want our students to prioritize digital citizenship, then positive digital citizenship must be practiced from an early age. Guiding how they share and communicate through assignments provides an ideal opportunity to blend in aspects of digital learning forcing the students to acknowledge the standard for creating a digital footprint.

Resources:

Fung, B. (2017, March 8). The luxury of telling poor people that iPhones are a luxury. The 

Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/

Heitner, D. (2017, March 8). When the news intrudes, helping kids make sense of the

media. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/